The gist of yoga
1: Now, the
instruction for contemplative union in harmony. (yoga)
2: Yoga is the
restraint of mental modifications.
3: Then the
seer remains in its own essential nature.
4: At other times, the identification is with
modifications are fivefold, some labored (painful) and others spontaneous (not
painful). (klishta and aklishta)
6: They are: real cognition, unreal cognition,
cognition, deep sleep, and memory.
perception, inference, and authoritative verbal testimony are the valid means
of real cognition.
cognition is misconception, not established on essential nature.
arising from words and devoid of objective reality is imaginary cognition.
sleep is the modification that has the cognition of non-existence for its
11: Memory is the not slipping away of experienced
12: They are restrained by repetitive practice
13): Of these, repetitive practice is the effort
14: And this is firmly grounded, being well-attended
a long time without interruption and with devotion.
15: Detachment is the consciousness of mastery
in one who is
free from thirst for seen and heard of enjoyments.
16: That is the highest vairagya:
through awareness of the Self, there is freedom from the least desire for the
three qualities of nature.
17: Cognitive absorption is accompanied by the
perceptual confrontation, presentation of an idea, experience of value, or
identification with the center of one’s consciousness.
18: The cessation of cognition preceded by repetitive
practice is the other (asamprajnata samadhi)
in which the residue of registered and preserved impressions
19: The cognition of being for those who are
bereft of body
identification and those who are merged with nature.
20: For others absorption is preceded by faith,
memory, and discernment.
21: Samadhi is near for those with intense ardor.
22: Also, a further differentiation is made
moderate, and intense.
23: Or, by
continuous contemplation on Isvara.
24: Isvara is a distinct purusha unaffected
propensities of affliction, action, and fruition.
25: In that Isvara the seed of the omniscient
26: That is
the teacher of the ancients also, not being limited by time.
signifier is pranava (AUM).
28: By its
constant repetition and dwelling upon its meaning in the mind.
from the repetition of the pranava mantra, the attainment of the disappearance
of obstacles and the turning inward of consciousness.
pain or distress, mental depression, doubt, exaggeration, laziness, hankering
after objects, insanity, having no firm ground for spiritual orientation,
instability—these obstacles cause the distraction of the mind.
31: Pain, despair, shakiness, and hard breathing
companions of distraction.
removing these obstacles: repetitive practice of one truth or principle.
suggestions for stabilizing the mind:
33: The mind is clarified by cultivating friendliness
happiness, compassion toward misery, gladness toward virtue, and equanimity
34: Or, by the expiration and retention of breath.
35: When absolute interest is shown to a sensory
or activity, that will bring the mind to a steady state.
36: Also by meditating on the sorrowless state
of inner joy
one can attain luminosity of intelligence.
37: Also the mind fixed on freedom from attachment
experience acquires steadiness.
38: Also by contemplating on the knowledge derived
dream state and the dreamless sleep state.
39: Or by contemplation as desired by oneself.
absorption, or sabija samadhi:
40: The yogi's mastery extends from the finest
atom to the
41: In one whose mental modulations have been
consciousness remains stabilized in the cognizer, the act of cognition, or the
cognized, taking the form or color of that, like a transparent crystal.
42: In the stabilization of consciousness in
an object of
perception, word, meaning, and idea are commingled in confused cognition.
43: In unobstructed consciousness, the memory
as if devoid of its own form, and the object alone is illuminated.
44: By this, savicara and nirvicara (consciousness
without conceptual configuration), having the subtle for their objects, are
45: And the province of subtle concepts extends
up to the noumenal.
46: These are only
absorption, or nirbija
47: Upon the undisturbed
consciousness, clarity of the higher Self.
48: Therein pure consciousness, pregnant with
49: It is different from word-testimony and
the meaning of specific objects arises from transparent consciousness.
50: Registered and preserved impressions born
consciousness prevent the registration and preservation of other impressions.
51: All being restrained, by the restraint of
comes seedless absorption.
and continuous contemplation on Isvara constitute practical yoga.
2: For the purpose of bringing about absorption
3: The afflictions are ignorance, ego identity,
hatred, and lust for life.
4: Nescience (avidya) is
the field for the others, whether they are dormant, attenuated, alternating, or
is taking the non-eternal, impure, painful, and the non-Self to be the eternal,
pure, pleasurable, and the Self.
6: Asmita is the identification of the seer,
as it were,
with the power of seeing.
(raga) is that which accompanies happiness.
(dvesha) is that which accompanies pain.
9: Clinging to life (abhinevesha) is sustained
even in the
learned, as in the ignorant, by the dynamics of one’s own deep-rooted interest.
10: These attenuated (afflictions) can be removed
regressive remergence into their origins.
11: Their modifications are to be removed by
12: The root
causes of the afflictions in the reservoir of conditioned or processed
impressions of action are experienced in life in a visible or latent manner.
13: As long as the root cause is there it must
fruition as a
class programmed for a certain duration and experiences.
14: They (the seeded carriers of action propensities)
joy or sorrow for their fruit in accordance with virtue or vice.
15: To those with unitive discrimination all
is misery on
account of the pain resulting from change, anxiety, and the registration and
preservation of impressions, as also on account of the conflict between the
functions of the triple modalities of nature.
The task of the seer
16: The pain that has not yet come is to be
17: The cause of that which is to be avoided
conjunction of the seer and the seen.
18: The seen consists of the elements and sense
organs, is of
the nature of illumination, activity, and stability, for the purpose of
experience and liberation.
stages of the triple modalities of nature are the particular, the universal,
the differentiated, and the undifferentiated.
20: The seer is consciousness only; even though
21: The very being of the seen is for the sake
of the seer
22: Although it becomes non-existent for one
has been fulfilled, it does not cease to exist because of being common to
23: The conjunction of purusha and prakriti
is the cause of
the apprehension of the essential nature and powers of both.
cause is nescience.
absence of the conjunction of prakriti and purusha is through the elimination
of nescience; its absence is the liberation of the seer.
unbroken discrimination between the Self and the non-Self is the means of
The eight limbs of Yoga
is the final stage of its sevenfold way.
28: By the
practice of the limbs of Yoga, the impurities are destroyed, and knowledge
arises, which leads to discrimination between the Self and the non-Self.
observances, posture, regulation of vital forces, withdrawal from distraction,
holding the focus of the mind, contemplation, and absorption are the eight
limbs of Yoga. (Yama, niyama, asana, pranayama, pratyahara, dharana, dhyana,
samadhaya or samadhi)
30: The self-restraints are nonviolence, truthfulness,
adhering to uprightness in life, and non-acquisitiveness. (The yamas: ahimsa,
satya, asteya, brahmacharya, aparigraha.)
31: Not conditioned by class, place, time, or
universal restraints constitute the great vow.
32: Purity, contentment, self-purification,
continuous contemplation on Isvara are the observances. (The niyamas:
sauca, santosa, tapas, svadhyaya, isvara pranidhana.)
33: When disturbed by confrontation, cultivate
34: Confrontations such as violence, whether
oneself, instigated, or abetted, whether precipitated by greed, anger, or
delusion, whether mild, medium, or intense, result in endless misery and
ignorance; thus, cultivate the opposites.
35: In the presence of one firmly established
nonviolence, hostility ceases. (yama: ahimsa)
36: For one firmly established in truth, the
action rest on truth. (yama: satya)
one firmly established in honesty, all precious things present themselves. (yama:
38: One firmly established in walking the path
Absolute gains energy. (yama: brahmacharya)
39: Non-possessiveness being confirmed, knowledge
“how” and “wherefore” of existence arises. (yama: aparigraha)
40: From purity: disgust with one's own limbs
of contact with others. (niyama: sauca)
inner purity: cheerfulness, one-pointedness, control of the senses, and fitness
for the vision of the Self. (niyama: sauca)
42: Unsurpassed happiness comes from contentment.
of the body and sense organs through destruction of impurity by self-purification.
self-study, union with the worshipped deity. (niyama: svadhyaya)
of absorption comes from continuous contemplation on isvara. (niyama: isvara
should be steady and comfortable. (asana)
the effort with continuous meditation on the endless nature of perfection. (asana)
no disturbance from pairs of opposites.
this (perfection of asana) being accomplished: pranayama, the regulation of the
movement of inspiration and expiration. (pranayama)
modifications are external, internal, or suspended, regulated by place, time,
and number, prolonged and subtle. (pranayama)
51: That fourth variety of pranayama goes beyond
and internal objects of interest. (pranayama)
the covering of light is dissolved.
the mind is fit for holding a focus.
54: When the senses do not come into contact
with their own
objects of interest and, as it were, follow the essential nature of the mind,
that is withdrawal from distraction, pratyahara.
the greatest mastery over the senses.
III: The last three limbs of Yoga
the focus of the mind is dharana.
that, the continuous flow of consciousness in unitiveness is dhyanam. (dhyana)
that, when the object alone shines, as if there is a void of one’s form, that
is samadhi. (samadhi)
three (dharana, dhyana, samadhi) taken together as one are samyam.